Jukka-Tapani Mäkinen has an M.Sc. degree in physics and a Ph.D. degree in optoelectronics engineering from the University of Oulu, Finland. He is currently working in the Optics Lead position at Oura Health Oy. Dr. Mäkinen has a long background in applied research. His major areas of interest are plastic optics design, embedded optics in consumer electronics, and hybrid integration of optics, mechanics, and electronics. He has been involved in multiple patents and patent applications in the fields of imaging optics, optical sensors, light field displays, and consumer device optical modules.